The full form of ICSI is Intracytoplasmic sperm injection. This is a technique of assisted reproduction where single sperm is selected and inserted into the egg of the female with the help of a very sophisticated instrument called micromanipulator. After the invention of ICSI, the approach to treating male infertility has improved to a greater extent, resulting in excellent Results.
The cases where ICSI is recommended are:
1. Compromised Sperm count and quality.
- Low Sperm count. This is called Oligospermia.
- Poor sperm motility. This is called Asthenozoospermia.
- Abnormal shaped sperms. This is called teratozoospermia.
- Combination of all the three. This is called Oligoteratoasthenozoospermia or OATS.
2. If there are no sperms in the semen but the hormonal test show that sperms are present in the testes then they can be extracted from the testes directly, with the help of a minor procedure called TESE AND TESA. With the help of the ICSI technique, they can be introduced into the egg of the wife resulting in fertilization.
3. ICSI can also be used in cases of retrograde ejaculation. Sperms are Filtered from the urine, and with the help of ICSI, they can be injected into the eggs of the wife.
4. Previous genetically challenged baby or congenital defects. PGD/ PGS is performed on the embryos to select normal embryos free of disease. ICSI is used while planning PGD AND PGS so that the procedure remains free of extra sperms.
5. Unexplained infertility.
6. Repeated IVF failures.
7. Severe endometriosis.
8. Infection in the semen.
The difference between IVF and ICSI is that in ICSI, single sperm is selected and injected into the Egg, while in IVF many sperms are spayed over the eggs. The difference is only the laboratory procedure. The procedure for IVF and ICSI is the same for females.